Reviews the costs and benefits that would result from implementing the China 6 light-duty vehicle emission standard in Guangdong Province with a recommended timeline earlier than the national plan (2023).

The market for agricultural tractors and construction equipment in India is growing rapidly. Without further regulatory action to control emissions from these sources, they are expected to surpass on-road vehicles as the predominant transportation-related source of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the next 10-15 years.

The European Commission has proposed the world’s toughest emission standards for non-road mobile machinery (NRMM), which will tighten restrictions and set stricter limits on emissions of particulate matter (PM). The Stage V emission standards will phase in as early as 2018 for approval of new engine types, and in 2019 for all sales.

The maximum benefits of a fleet modernization program can be achieved by conducting a subsidized scrappage program along with early adoption of BS VI standards starting as soon as 2019.

This study looks into two key types of non-road mobile sources: agricultural tractors and construction equipment. Agricultural tractors are widely used in rural areas, and often operate beyond their designated tasks, serving as alternative transportation for passengers and goods.

China has made tremendous progress in emission control for on-road vehicles (light duty vehicles, buses, and heavy-duty trucks) in recent decades. The vehicle population in China grew nearly sevenfold, from 16 million to 108 million, between 2000 and 2012, and this rapid pace will continue for the foreseeable future.