To support the development of stringent yet cost-effective fuel efficiency standards for Chinese passenger cars for the 2025–2030 time frame, this study evaluates the potential technology pathways for and incremental costs of meeting the preliminary fuel efficiency target outlined in Made in China 2025.

State governments in India can play an important role in the transition to electric vehicles, and policymakers need innovative and dynamic support in creating and implementing electric vehicle policies that best fit the local context.

In June 2019, Japan issued new fuel economy standards for passenger vehicles starting in model year 2030. The standards require an average fleet gasoline-equivalent fuel economy of 25.4 kilometers per liter by 2030, which is a 32.4% improvement over the fleet average for fiscal year 2016.

As India considers strategies for the rapid electrification of its new vehicle market, policy experiences from around the world offer a variety of feasible pathways and concrete examples that can be tailored to the Indian context.

Market projections for electric vehicle growth in India are ambitious but uncertain. In addition, the passenger car CO2 standards enforced in India are amongst the most lenient, and the super-credit multipliers available for electric vehicles are more generous compared to global practices.

Transport emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) have not decreased nearly as much as CO2 from all other sectors in Europe. Together with emission limits, taxes can help accelerate reductions by giving consumers incentives for buying low-emission vehicles, creating a market-pull effect.

This briefing evaluates the compliance of manufacturer groups in India with fiscal year (FY) 2017–2018 fuel consumption standards and their readiness to meet more stringent requirements taking effect in FY 2022–2023.

There is growing evidence globally and in China of the gap between laboratory test findings and real-world carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and fuel consumption.

This briefing compares the fleet characteristics and fuel-efficiency technology deployment in China, Europe and the U.S. from 2010 to 2014. In addition, the briefing evaluates the response of the passenger vehicle market in China to the country’s fuel efficiency standards.

As vehicle pollution and fuel efficiency regulations have become more stringent, the technologies required to mitigate emissions and reduce fuel consumption become increasingly complex.