To support the development of stringent yet cost-effective fuel efficiency standards for Chinese passenger cars for the 2025–2030 time frame, this study evaluates the potential technology pathways for and incremental costs of meeting the preliminary fuel efficiency target outlined in Made in China 2025.

This paper provides the first comprehensive social welfare estimates of recent fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions standards.

While heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) are just 5% of vehicle sales in China, they consume nearly 50% of all on-road transport fuel.

Regulators are working toward an India-specific version of the European Commission’s Vehicle Energy Consumption Calculation Tool (VECTO), and its use in future fuel efficiency regulations would allow India to implement simulation-based standards that are more aligned with trends in other major vehicle markets.

The new light-duty CO2 standards require the European Commission to monitor the real-world fuel and electric energy consumption of light-duty vehicles. In order to do this, the European Commission must develop a procedure to transfer the data recorded by soon to be mandatory on-board fuel and energy consumption monitoring devices (OBFCM).

To address the danger that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from aircraft pose to public health and welfare, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is set to propose an aircraft CO2 emissions standard.

There is considerable interest in India in moving toward fuel-efficiency standards based on simulation modeling, and particularly in exploring the feasibility of using the Vehicle Energy Consumption Calculation Tool (VECTO) developed by the European Commission.

This working paper details and analyzes a global, transparent, and geographically allocated carbon dioxide emissions inventory for commercial aviation for calendar year 2018.

This study assesses the fuel efficiency of U.S. airlines on domestic operations in 2017 and 2018. Revenue passenger miles (RPMs) increased 10% and departures increased by 4% from 2016 to 2018. Fuel efficiency in terms of RPMs per gallon of fuel consumed improved by 3%.

Market projections for electric vehicle growth in India are ambitious but uncertain. In addition, the passenger car CO2 standards enforced in India are amongst the most lenient, and the super-credit multipliers available for electric vehicles are more generous compared to global practices.