Remote sensing is one technique used to measure real-world NOx emissions in Europe. Remote sensing measurements conducted by the Canton of Zurich are unique in terms of how consistently they have been collected since 2000 and the steep road grade at the main remote sensing monitoring site.

While the Dieselgate scandal raised awareness of defeat devices—software calibrations that manipulate pollutant emission controls when vehicles are in the real world—third-party evaluation remains difficult because these devices are embedded in sophisticated computer code.

Market projections for electric vehicle growth in India are ambitious but uncertain. In addition, the passenger car CO2 standards enforced in India are amongst the most lenient, and the super-credit multipliers available for electric vehicles are more generous compared to global practices.

Remote sensing is potentially the best option for fleet emissions monitoring, the development of an emissions factor, the identification of individual high- or low-emitting vehicles, and the screening for groups of high-emitting vehicles for market surveillance.

Measurement of exhaust emissions from in-use vehicles is key to any effective system for controlling air pollution in the transportation sector. The best-known method of in-use vehicle emissions testing employs a portable emissions measurement system, or PEMS.

This briefing evaluates the compliance of manufacturer groups in India with fiscal year (FY) 2017–2018 fuel consumption standards and their readiness to meet more stringent requirements taking effect in FY 2022–2023.

On June 28, 2018, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment (MEE) of the People’s Republic of China released the final rule for the China VI emission standard for heavy-duty vehicles. The China VI standard will be implemented in two phases.

The eco-innovations mechanism rewards innovative technologies that produce real-world CO2 savings beyond what is measured over the standardized test cycle during vehicle type approval.

On May 17, 2018, the European Commission released a regulatory proposal for setting the first ever carbon dioxide (CO2) emission standards for new heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) sold in the European Union.

This position brief makes specific recommendations regarding the adoption of Real Driving Emissions (RDE) testing in India.