Air pollution continues to be a major threat to public health. In 2017, 96% of the European Union’s urban population was exposed to ground ozone levels in excess of air quality guidelines (AQGs) from the World Health Organization (WHO). In the United States, the picture is similar. An estimated 93% of the U.S.

An increasing number of countries, including mainland China, are considering enforcing emission regulations for in-use diesel vehicles via remote sensing, a promising technology that measures exhaust emissions from a large number of on-road vehicles without interrupting traffic.

The new light-duty CO2 standards require the European Commission to monitor the real-world fuel and electric energy consumption of light-duty vehicles. In order to do this, the European Commission must develop a procedure to transfer the data recorded by soon to be mandatory on-board fuel and energy consumption monitoring devices (OBFCM).

To meet upcoming mandatory fleet-average reductions in CO2, heavy-duty vehicle manufacturers will have to introduce fuel-efficient technologies at a faster rate than they have done in past decades.

There is considerable interest in India in moving toward fuel-efficiency standards based on simulation modeling, and particularly in exploring the feasibility of using the Vehicle Energy Consumption Calculation Tool (VECTO) developed by the European Commission.

In 2017, Mayor Anne Hidalgo of Paris and Mayor Saddiq Khan of London jointly committed to making data on real-world vehicle pollutant emissions available to residents of those cities.

Remote sensing is one technique used to measure real-world NOx emissions in Europe. Remote sensing measurements conducted by the Canton of Zurich are unique in terms of how consistently they have been collected since 2000 and the steep road grade at the main remote sensing monitoring site.

While the Dieselgate scandal raised awareness of defeat devices—software calibrations that manipulate pollutant emission controls when vehicles are in the real world—third-party evaluation remains difficult because these devices are embedded in sophisticated computer code.

Market projections for electric vehicle growth in India are ambitious but uncertain. In addition, the passenger car CO2 standards enforced in India are amongst the most lenient, and the super-credit multipliers available for electric vehicles are more generous compared to global practices.

Remote sensing is potentially the best option for fleet emissions monitoring, the development of an emissions factor, the identification of individual high- or low-emitting vehicles, and the screening for groups of high-emitting vehicles for market surveillance.

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