South Asia is home to 9 of the world’s 10 cities with the worst air pollution, which causes an estimated 2 million premature deaths across the region each year and incurs significant economic costs.

Air pollution is a global environmental threat, and a cause of significant proportions of diseases and premature deaths. The threat is massive in India, which continuously fails to meet World Health Organization (WHO) standards and is home to 21 of the 30 most polluted cities of the world.

The Commission for Air Quality Management in NCR & Adjoining Areas (CAQM) has formulated a Comprehensive Policy to abate the menace of air pollution in Delhi-NCR, in a crucial step towards overall amelioration of the air quality of the National Capital Region (NCR) through differentiated geographical approach and timelines of action.

This study assesses Delhi’s air pollution scenario in the winter of 2021 and the actions to tackle it. Winter 2021 was unlike previous winters as the control measures mandated by the Commission of Air Quality Management (CAQM) in Delhi National Capital Region and adjoining areas were rolled out.

Nine out of ten people breathe dirty air. Air pollution leads to early death and increased disease, while impacting our economies and reducing opportunities for our residents to thrive. The most vulnerable and marginalised communities in our cities are most at risk.

Air pollution exposure is a year-round, nation-wide public health crisis in India. This paper presents a careful reading of nearly eleven hours of discussions on air pollution that took place in the upper and lower Houses of Parliament in November 2019.

This framing paper aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge and the governance framework on air quality management in India. Air pollution is the second largest risk factor for public health in India, behind only child and maternal malnutrition.

New WHO Global Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs) provide clear evidence of the damage air pollution inflicts on human health, at even lower concentrations than previously understood.

This Brief provides an overview of the new CAQM Act 2021, its strengths and limitations, and the path ahead for enabling airshed level governance in the rest of the country.

This report is the synthesis of the key findings and recommendations of the studies carried out under the World Bank’s Ethiopia AQM ASA program. The rest of the report is organized as follows.