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This study analyzes the real-world emissions of seven Euro VI-D trucks and evaluates the avenues for extending the in-use PEMS test provisions to better capture a wider range of frequently occurring conditions in real operation. The analysis finds that urban operation is responsible for 50% to 90% of total NOx emissions from the trucks tested.

Air pollution poses a risk to human health at levels even below the emission limits established by the World Health Organization in Europe.