This is a companion to the working paper that estimated the vehicle tailpipe and power sector emissions impacts of large-scale vehicle electrification in India through 2040 under various scenarios representing plausible evolutions of the electricity grid.

Market analyses by vehicle segment, weight category, manufacturer, and engine size are needed to optimize vehicle emission standards and testing requirements. In India, these are largely adopted from Euro standards to fit the Indian landscape, and that was the case with the Bharat Stage (BS) VI regulations that took effect April 1, 2020.

Two-wheelers are simpler and lighter than other vehicle types and consequently their motor power requirements and battery size are much lower.

This follow-up to a 2019 ICCT study re-evaluates the 5-year total cost of ownership (TCO) of four-wheeler battery electric vehicles (BEVs) used for ride-hailing and compares the results with comparable conventional gasoline, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle models in 2020.

In an effort to address critical air pollution problems and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, India has implemented policies promoting the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) and the decarbonization of the power sector.

This is the second part of ICCT’s comprehensive survey of motor gasoline and automotive diesel fuel quality across India. The first part presented analysis of samples collected in December 2019 and January 2020, while the Bharat Stage (BS) IV standards were still in effect for much of the country.

The shift from carburetor technology to fuel injection that has come with the implementation of India’s Bharat Stage VI emission standards provides the basis from which to consider other incremental technologies for fuel efficiency improvement in the two-wheeler segment, which currently consumes more gasoline than all other forms of on-road tran

India’s commitment to the EV30@30 global initiative, which targets a 30% new sales share for electric vehicles (EVs) by 2030, translates to the addition of about 24 million two-wheelers, 2.9 million three-wheelers, and 5.4 million four-wheelers to the fleet in the next 10 years.

This working paper examines the kinds of near-term incentives and supporting actions that are necessary to make battery electric vehicles (BEVs) a viable purchase option for drivers in Indian ride-hailing fleets.

State governments in India can play an important role in the transition to electric vehicles, and policymakers need innovative and dynamic support in creating and implementing electric vehicle policies that best fit the local context.