The central government and several state governments in India have implemented consumer financial incentives that reduce the total cost of ownership gap between electric and conventional gasoline and diesel cars used as ride-hailing vehicles.

This follow-up to a 2019 ICCT study re-evaluates the 5-year total cost of ownership (TCO) of four-wheeler battery electric vehicles (BEVs) used for ride-hailing and compares the results with comparable conventional gasoline, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle models in 2020.