The shift to fuel injection in two-wheelers that has come with India’s implementation of Bharat Stage VI emission standards brings with it the opportunity to adopt several modern internal combustion engine (ICE) technologies from the passenger car, limited only by cost-bracket considerations and vehicle size.

The Government of India has supported the use of ethanol in transportation fuels for nearly 20 years. As imported ethanol is not allowed for fuel use, India must scale up its domestic ethanol production if it is to meet increasing blend targets amidst increasing demand for gasoline.

The shift from carburetor technology to fuel injection that has come with the implementation of India’s Bharat Stage VI emission standards provides the basis from which to consider other incremental technologies for fuel efficiency improvement in the two-wheeler segment, which currently consumes more gasoline than all other forms of on-road tran