Proposed short-term measures to reduce the carbon intensity of international shipping fall into two categories: operational approaches and technical approaches.

To address the danger that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from aircraft pose to public health and welfare, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is set to propose an aircraft CO2 emissions standard.

In June 2019, Japan issued new fuel economy standards for passenger vehicles starting in model year 2030. The standards require an average fleet gasoline-equivalent fuel economy of 25.4 kilometers per liter by 2030, which is a 32.4% improvement over the fleet average for fiscal year 2016.

This working paper details and analyzes a global, transparent, and geographically allocated carbon dioxide emissions inventory for commercial aviation for calendar year 2018.

This study assesses the fuel efficiency of U.S. airlines on domestic operations in 2017 and 2018. Revenue passenger miles (RPMs) increased 10% and departures increased by 4% from 2016 to 2018. Fuel efficiency in terms of RPMs per gallon of fuel consumed improved by 3%.

Although China has one of the most densely populated coastal areas on Earth and is home to some of the world’s busiest ports, it is not protected by an International Maritime Organization-designated Emission Control Area (ECA).

This paper examines the potential of two innovative technologies—wind-assist and hull air lubrication—to help reduce emissions from new and existing ships.

This paper estimates the environmental impacts of reintroducing commercial supersonic transport (SST) aircraft into the global aviation fleet. Model the landing and takeoff (LTO) noise, sonic boom, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from a new, unconstrained SST network of 2,000 in 2035.

This report compares the fuel efficiency of 20 airlines operating nonstop flights between the mainland United States and East Asia and Oceania. It extends the previous transatlantic fuel efficiency methodology to the transpacific market.

Ships are an efficient way to move cargo, transporting approximately 80% of the world’s goods by volume, but ships also threaten human health, ecosystems, and the climate. This report focuses on the air and climate pollutant black carbon (BC).