This briefing paper outlines a methodology for calculating well-to-wake CO2-equivalent emissions from four fossil marine fuels: heavy fuel oil, very low sulfur fuel oil, marine gas oil, and liquefied natural gas. Well-to-wake emissions, or life-cycle emissions, are the sum of upstream (well-to-tank) and downstream (tank-to-wake) emissions.

The number of ships using exhaust gas cleaning systems, better known as “scrubbers,” has grown from just three ships in 2008 to more than 4,300 in 2020.

Proposed short-term measures to reduce the carbon intensity of international shipping fall into two categories: operational approaches and technical approaches.

Although China has one of the most densely populated coastal areas on Earth and is home to some of the world’s busiest ports, it is not protected by an International Maritime Organization-designated Emission Control Area (ECA).

This paper examines the potential of two innovative technologies—wind-assist and hull air lubrication—to help reduce emissions from new and existing ships.

As Arctic shipping increases, pressure is mounting to protect the environment from fuels that are harmful when burned and spilled, including heavy fuel oil (HFO). Presently, the IMO is working to develop a ban on HFO in Arctic waters.

Ships are an efficient way to move cargo, transporting approximately 80% of the world’s goods by volume, but ships also threaten human health, ecosystems, and the climate. This report focuses on the air and climate pollutant black carbon (BC).

Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the key to avoiding the most catastrophic impacts of climate change. Despite international shipping being excluded from the Paris Agreement, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) is developing its own strategy to reduce GHGs from ships.

Compiles a high-resolution ship emissions inventory in the Greater Pearl River Delta (GPRD), a heavily populated and prosperous region with heavy ship traffic. Because this traffic contributes to poor local air quality, the Chinese government has identified the GPRD region as a key target for steps to control emissions from ships.