Although China has one of the most densely populated coastal areas on Earth and is home to some of the world’s busiest ports, it is not protected by an International Maritime Organization-designated Emission Control Area (ECA).

This paper examines the potential of two innovative technologies—wind-assist and hull air lubrication—to help reduce emissions from new and existing ships.

This paper estimates the environmental impacts of reintroducing commercial supersonic transport (SST) aircraft into the global aviation fleet. Model the landing and takeoff (LTO) noise, sonic boom, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from a new, unconstrained SST network of 2,000 in 2035.