India heavy-duty fleet modernization program: a scrappage program combined with accelerated adoption of Bharat Stage VI emission standards

The maximum benefits of a fleet modernization program can be achieved by conducting a subsidized scrappage program along with early adoption of BS VI standards starting as soon as 2019. Despite the fact that there are far fewer heavy-duty trucks and buses than motorcycles and cars plying the roads in India, heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) contribute the majority of transportation-related emissions of black carbon (BC), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Older and/or poorly maintained HDVs can become high emitters, releasing levels of pollution many times higher than other vehicles in their class. These older, high-emitting vehicles are key targets for pollution reduction programs.