Designing biologically inspired nanoscale molecular assembly with desired functionality is a challenging endeavour. Here we report the designing of fbrin-inspired nanostructured peptide based sealants which facilitate remarkably fast entrapping of blood corpuscles (~28 seconds) in contrast to fbrin (~56 seconds). Our engineered sealants are stabilized by lysine-aspartate ionic interactions and also by Nε (γ-glutamyl) lysine isopeptide bond mediated covalent interaction.

Bacterial drug resistance has emerged as a serious global threat mandating the development of novel methodologies that allow facile modulation of antimicrobial action in a controlled fashion. Conjugating antibiotics to nanoparticles helps to meet this goal by increasing the drug’s overall avidity, bioavailability and easier internalisation into mammalian cells, targeting bacteria that otherwise escape antibacterial action by host cell-localisation.

A study on the physiology of root parasitism in sandal (Santalum album L.) was conducted by comparing a six-year-old sandal grown alone and along with a host (Casuarina equisetifolia). Although maximum haustorial connections were observed when grown along with the host, sandal formed haustorial connections with plants including grass up to a distance of 3 m. Anatomical studies on haustoria indicated a vascular connectivity between the host and sandal.

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Both plants and animals make decisions in response to the environment to maximize their fitness. Plants use dormancy in seeds to move through time and space, and timing of the transition to germination is influenced by external cues, including temperature. Here, we report the presence of a decision-making center within the root tip of dormant seeds and demonstrate that it shares a similar configuration as some systems within the human brain.

On World Oceans Day, 8 June, UNESCO will present the first ever global stock-taking of the oceanographic sciences at the United Nations' Ocean Conference, at the UN in New York from 5 to 9 June.

Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is a promising antibacterial material, the efficacy of which can be further enhanced by the addition of silver nanoparticles (nAg). In this study, the mechanisms of antibacterial activity of rGO–nAg nanocomposite against several important human pathogenic multidrug resistant bacteria, namely Gram-positive coccal Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative rodshaped Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis are investigated.

Original Source

Plastics are synthetic polymers derived from fossil oil and largely resistant to biodegradation. Polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) represent ∼92% of total plastic production. PE is largely utilized in packaging, representing ∼40% of total demand for plastic products with over a trillion plastic bags used every year. Plastic production has increased exponentially in the past 50 years.

Lions (Panthera leo) feed on diverse prey species, a range that is broadened by their cooperative hunting. Although humans are not typical prey, habitual man-eating by lions is well documented. Fathoming the motivations of the Tsavo and Mfuwe man-eaters (killed in 1898 in Kenya and 1991 in Zambia, respectively) may be elusive, but we can clarify aspects of their behaviour using dental microwear texture analysis. Specifically, we analysed the surface textures of lion teeth to assess whether these notorious man-eating lions scavenged carcasses during their depredations.

Lignin, one of the most abundant renewable feedstock, is used to develop a biocompatible hydrogel as anti-infective ointment. A hydrophilic polyoxazoline chain is grafted through ring opening polymerization, possess homogeneous spherical nanoparticles of 10–15nm. The copolymer was covalently modified with triazole moiety to fortify the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities. The hydrogel was capable of down regulating the expression level of IL-1β in LPS induced macrophage cells, and to cause significant reduction of iNOS production.

The social brain hypothesis posits that social complexity is the primary driver of primate cognitive complexity, and that social pressures ultimately led to the evolution of the large human brain. Although this idea has been supported by studies indicating positive relationships between relative brain and/or neocortex size and group size, reported effects of different social and mating systems are highly conflicting.