Measles is a highly contagious childhood disease. During the prevaccine era, nearly every child acquired measles before the age of 15 years. A key characteristic of the disease is a transient immune suppression, causing increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections.

Previous efforts to report estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in India and its different parts include the National Cancer Registry Programme Reports, Sample Registration System cause of death findings, Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Series, and GLOBOCAN. We present a comprehensive picture of the patterns and time trends of the burden of total cancer and specific cancer types in each state of India estimated as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 because such a systematic compilation is not readily available.

Mycetoma is a chronic mutilating disease of the skin and the underlying tissues caused by fungi or bacteria.

Enteric fever continues to be a major cause of mortality and morbidity globally, particularly in poor resource settings. Lack of rapid diagnostic assays is a major driving factor for the empirical treatment of enteric fever. In this work, a rapid and sensitive method ‘Miod’ ‘has been developed. Miod includes a magnetic nanoparticle-based enrichment of target bacterial cells, followed by cell lysis and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of nucleic acids for signal augmentation along with concurrent measurement of signal via an in–situ optical detection system.

The 69th World Health Assembly approved the Global Health Sector Strategy to eliminate viral hepatitis by 2030. Although no virological cure exists for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, existing therapies to control viral replication and prophylaxis to minimise mother-to-child transmission make elimination of HBV feasible. We aimed to estimate the national, regional, and global prevalence of HBsAg in the general population and in the population aged 5 years in 2016, as well as coverage of prophylaxis, diagnosis, and treatment.

Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease, caused by five different species of the genus Plasmodium, and is endemic to many tropical and sub-tropical countries of the globe. At present, malaria diagnosis at the primary health care level in India is conducted by either microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT). In recent years, molecular diagnosis (by PCR assay), has emerged as the most sensitive method for malaria diagnosis.

The objective of the study was to review policies on management of latent tuberculosis infection in countries with low and high burdens of tuberculosis.

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Of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB), <50% complete treatment. Most treatment failures for patients with MDR TB are due to death during TB treatment. We sought to determine the proportion of deaths during MDR TB treatment attributable to TB itself. We used a structured verbal autopsy tool to interview family members of patients who died during MDR TB treatment in India during January–December 2016.

False-negative results for Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein (HRP) 2–based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are increasing in Eritrea. We investigated HRP gene 2/3 (pfhrp2/pfhrp3) status in 50 infected patients at 2 hospitals. We showed that 80.8% (21/26) of patients at Ghindae Hospital and 41.7% (10/24) at Massawa Hospital were infected with pfhrp2-negative parasites and 92.3% (24/26) of patients at Ghindae Hospital and 70.8% (17/24) at Massawa Hospital were infected with pfhrp3-negative parasites.

In 2015, the second cycle of the CONCORD programme established global surveillance of cancer survival as a metric of the effectiveness of health systems and to inform global policy on cancer control. CONCORD-3 updates the worldwide surveillance of cancer survival to 2014.

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