The World Health Organization recommends that malaria be confirmed by parasitological diagnosis before treatment using Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT). Despite this, many health workers in malaria endemic countries continue to diagnose malaria based on symptoms alone. This study evaluates interventions to help bridge this gap between guidelines and provider practice.

Original Source

In India as elsewhere, multi-drug resistance (MDR) poses a serious challenge in the control of tuberculosis (TB). The End TB strategy, recently approved by the world health assembly, aims to reduce TB deaths by 95% and new cases by 90% between 2015 and 2035. A key pillar of this approach is early diagnosis of tuberculosis, including use of higher-sensitivity diagnostic testing and universal rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST). Despite limitations of current laboratory assays, universal access to rapid DST could become more feasible with the advent of new and emerging technologies.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major contributor to poor patient outcomes. AKI occurs in about 13·3 million people per year, 85% of whom live in the developing world, and, although no direct link between AKI and death has yet been shown, AKI is thought to contribute to about 1·7 million deaths every year. The course of AKI varies with the setting in which it occurs, and the severity and duration of AKI aff ects outcomes such as dialysis requirement, renal functional recovery, and survival.

At present, diagnosis of Ebola virus disease requires transport of venepuncture blood to field biocontainment laboratories for testing by real-time RT-PCR, resulting in delays that complicate patient care and infection control efforts. Therefore, an urgent need exists for a point-of-care rapid diagnostic test for this disease. In this Article, we report the results of a field validation of the Corgenix ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test kit.

After more than a decade of major achievements, the AIDS response is at a crucial juncture, both in terms of its immediate trajectory and its sustainability, as well as its place in the new global health and development agendas. In May, 2013, the UNAIDS–Lancet Commission—a diverse group of experts in HIV, health, and development, young people, people living with HIV and affected communities, activists, and political leaders—was established to investigate how the AIDS response could evolve in a new era of sustainable development.

First reported in September, 2012, human infections with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) can result in severe respiratory disease, characterised by life-threatening pneumonia and renal failure. Countries with primary infections of MERS-CoV are located in the Middle East, but cases have been occasionally exported in other countries (fi gure). Human-to-human infections of MERS-CoV are rare and confi rmed cases are usually traced back to contact with camels, an intermediate host species for MERS-CoV. (Correspondence)

The objective of the study is to examine whether improved human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment was associated with better survival after diagnosis of AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses (AIDS-OIs) and how survival differed by AIDS-OI.

Original Source

The objective of the study was to assess the operational integration of maternal HIV testing and syphilis screening in Mwanza, Tanzania. Interviews were conducted with 76 health workers (HW) from three antenatal clinics (ANC) and three maternity wards in 2008–2009 and 1137 consecutive women admitted for delivery. Nine ANC health education sessions and client flow observations were observed. Results: Only 25.0% of HWs reported they had received training in both prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and syphilis screening.

Like a growing number of rapidly developing countries, India has begun to develop a system for large-scale community-based screening for diabetes. The researchers sought to identify the implications of using alternative screening instruments to detect people with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes among diverse populations across India.

The Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) provides free diagnostic and treatment services to all tuberculosis (TB) patients registered under it. Equitable access, implying a preference for the most hard-to-reach groups particularly for tribal areas, is a major concern for RNTCP. This study was conducted to assess the performance of RNTCP in terms of case detection and cure rates in areas dominated by tribal groups in India.