Transcription factor AP-1 plays a central role in HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis. AP-1 has also been implicated in chemo-radio-resistance but the mechanism(s) remained unexplored. In the present study, cervical cancer stem-like cells (CaCxSLCs) isolated and enriched from cervical cancer cell lines SiHa and C33a demonstrated an elevated AP-1 DNA-binding activity in comparison to non-stem cervical cancer cells.

Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is most aggressive head and neck cancer often associated with HR-HPV infection. The role of AP-1 which is an essential regulator of HPV oncogene expression and tumorigenesis is not reported in tongue cancer. One hundred tongue tissue biopsies comprising precancer, cancer and adjacent controls including two tongue cancer cell lines were employed to study the role of HPV infection and AP-1 family proteins. An exclusive prevalence (28%) of HR-HPV type 16 was observed mainly in well differentiated tongue carcinomas (78.5%).