Given the continued successes of the world’s lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination programs and the growing successes of many malaria elimination efforts, the necessity of low cost tools and methodologies applicable to long-term disease surveillance is greater than ever before.

We assess how presymptomatic infection affects predictability of infectious disease epidemics. We focus on whether or not a major outbreak (i.e. an epidemic that will go on to infect a large number of individuals) can be predicted reliably soon after initial cases of disease have appeared within a population. For emerging epidemics, significant time and effort is spent recording symptomatic cases. Scientific attention has often focused on improving statistical methodologies to estimate disease transmission parameters from these data.

Chikungunya and dengue infections are spatio-temporally related. The current review aims to determine the geographic limits of chikungunya, dengue and the principal mosquito vectors for both viruses and to synthesise current epidemiological understanding of their co-distribution. Three biomedical databases (PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science) were searched from their inception until May 2015 for studies that reported concurrent detection of chikungunya and dengue viruses in the same patient.

Rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kits are widely used in India for the diagnosis of dengue infection. It is important to evaluate the validity and reliability of these RDTs. The study was aimed to determine the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of four commercially available RDTs [Panbio Dengue Duo cassette, Standard Diagnostics (SD) Bioline Dengue Duo, J. Mitra Dengue Day-1 test and Reckon Dengue IgG/IgM] against composite reference criteria (CRC), and compare the cost of the tests.

Participants of Hispanic/Latino origin across the United States aged 45 to 74 years were enrolled into the Echocardiographic Study of Latinos (ECHO-SOL) and underwent a comprehensive echocardiography examination to define left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). Clinical HF was defined according to self-report, and those with cardiac dysfunction but without clinical HF were characterized as having subclinical or unrecognized cardiac dysfunction.

The objective of the study was to assess the validity of the GLOBOCAN methods for deriving national estimates of cancer incidence. The researchers obtained incidence and mortality data from Norway by region, year of diagnosis, cancer site, sex and 5-year age group for the period 1983–2012 from the NORDCAN database. Estimates for the year 2010 were derived using nine different methods from GLOBOCAN.

Patients infected by Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium ovale suffer repeated clinical attacks without primaquine therapy against latent stages in liver. Primaquine causes seriously threatening acute hemolytic anemia in patients having inherited glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Access to safe primaquine therapy hinges upon the ability to confirm G6PD normal status. CareStart G6PD, a qualitative G6PD rapid diagnostic test (G6PD RDT) intended for use at point-of-care in impoverished rural settings where most malaria patients live, was evaluated.

The pattern of epidemic meningococcal disease in the African meningitis belt may be influenced by the background level of population immunity but this has been measured infrequently. A standardised enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibodies was established at five centres within the meningitis belt. Antibody concentrations were then measured in 3930 individuals stratified by age and residence from six countries. Seroprevalence by age was used in a catalytic model to determine the force of infection.

Leprosy is the complex disease manifestation of Mycobacterium leprae infection. Although prevalence has declined from 5.2 million globally in the 1980s, new annual case detection rates (CDRs) remain high, at more than 200,000 new cases per year, indicating that additional leprosy control strategies are required to halt transmission.

Original Source

Rapid sequencing of RNA/DNA from pathogen samples obtained during disease outbreaks provides critical scientific and public health information. However, challenges exist for exporting samples to laboratories or establishing conventional sequencers in remote outbreak regions. We successfully used a novel, pocket-sized nanopore sequencer at a field diagnostic laboratory in Liberia during the current Ebola virus outbreak.