On May 19, 2014, the 67th World Health Assembly (WHA) adopted WHO’s “Global strategy and targets for tuberculosis prevention, care and control after 2015”. This post-2015 global tuberculosis strategy, labelled the End TB Strategy, was shaped during the past 2 years. A wide range of stakeholders—from ministries of health and national tuberculosis programmes to technical and scientific institutions, financial and development partners, civil society and health activists, non-governmental organisations, and the private sector—contributed to its development.

In spite of significant progress made in tuberculosis (TB) control, nine million people developed TB disease in 2013, and 1.5 million died of TB. While implementation of the Stop TB (DOTS) Strategy has cured millions of patients with TB, and undoubtedly saved lives, the impact of this strategy on reducing TB incidence has been disappointing. The TB epidemic is declining at the rate of 1.5 per cent per year, much slower than what mathematical models had predicted. At the current rate of decline, TB elimination by 2050 is considered impossible. (Editorial)

Almost 20 000 cases of Ebola virus disease have been reported in west Africa. Estimates of the reproductive ratio of the outbreak suggest that about half of infectious contacts need to be prevented to control the epidemic. The international response in the affected regions has focused mainly on establishing infrastructure that enhances local capabilities to improve contact surveillance, effectively isolate infectious people, educate people on mode of transmission and risk, and provision of supportive treament. (Correspondence)

Neonatal mortality—death that occurs during the first 28 days of life—accounts for nearly half of all the deaths that occur in children before they reach their fifth birthday. Worldwide, nearly 3 million neonatal deaths occur every year. Three bacterial infections—sepsis (infection of the bloodstream), pneumonia (infection of the lungs), and meningitis (infection of the brain's protective covering)—are responsible for nearly a quarter of all neonatal deaths.

Dengue virus (DENV) infection occurs throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world where dengue is a major public health problem. Laboratory diagnosis of dengue with a single serum specimen obtained during the acute phase of the illness requires tests to detect IgM antibodies to DENV or the virus genome. A previous evaluation of available tests for IgM anti-DENV showed wide variability. The present study examined newly available commercial tests that detect the virus protein NS1, as well as new tests for IgM anti-DENV in microplate or rapid diagnostic test formats.

Breast cancer is the largest contributor to cancer incidence and cancer mortality in women worldwide. As people in Western societies are living longer, there will be an increase in the proportion of older women with breast cancer in upcoming years. Older women with breast cancer often have comorbidities and functional limitations, resulting in an increased risk of adverse outcomes and side effects from breast cancer treatment. Also, previous studies have shown that breast cancer specific mortality increases with age.

Measurement of blood pressure is an iconic part of modern medicine. Over the past century, life insurers, public health organisations, and prospective studies, including the Framingham Heart Study, have established the relation between increased blood pressure and long term morbidity and mortality. About 40% of adults have hypertension globally; the prevalence is highest in the African region. In the United States, hypertension is the most common diagnosis at a medical visit.

Diabetes is a huge burden in China, where about 100 million people have been diagnosed with the disease. Treatments are needed that are optimal for treating Chinese patients with diabetes. Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes are characterised by having relatively low bodyweight and significant β-cell deterioration. β-cell failure results in deficiency of insulin secretion, particularly at the early phase of insulin secretion in Chinese patients. As a result, postprandial hyperglycaemia is more pronounced in Chinese patients with early type 2 diabetes than most other ethnic groups.

Diabetes triples the risk for active tuberculosis, thus the increasing burden of type 2 diabetes will help to sustain the present tuberculosis epidemic. Recommendations have been made for bidirectional screening, but evidence is scarce about the performance of specific tuberculosis tests in individuals with diabetes, specific diabetes tests in patients with tuberculosis, and screening and preventive therapy for latent tuberculosis infections in individuals with diabetes. Clinical management of patients with both diseases can be difficult.

Earlier we had reported that the recurring annual seasonal outbreaks in Muzaffarpur district, Bihar, of what used to be considered viral encephalitis and called 'acute encephalitis syndrome' since no virus could be detected, is acute encephalopathy. Our report was based on a limited study and retrospective analysis of case records.

Original Source