In spite of significant progress made in tuberculosis (TB) control, nine million people developed TB disease in 2013, and 1.5 million died of TB. While implementation of the Stop TB (DOTS) Strategy has cured millions of patients with TB, and undoubtedly saved lives, the impact of this strategy on reducing TB incidence has been disappointing. The TB epidemic is declining at the rate of 1.5 per cent per year, much slower than what mathematical models had predicted. At the current rate of decline, TB elimination by 2050 is considered impossible. (Editorial)