Stigma, discrimination, lack of privacy, and long waiting times partly explain why six out of ten individuals living with HIV do not access facility-based testing. By circumventing these barriers, self-testing offers potential for more people to know their sero-status. Recent approval of an in-home HIV self test in the US has sparked self-testing initiatives, yet data on acceptability, feasibility, and linkages to care are limited.

The first-ever case of an exceptionally rare genetic disorder involving sudden fever induced death of three infants in a family. There is no previous case of the disease in India.

The population of India is extremely diverse comprising of more than 3,000 ethnic groups who still follow endogamy. Haemoglobinopathies are the commonest hereditary disorders in India and pose a major health problem. The data on the prevalence of β-thalassemias and other haemoglobinopathies in different caste/ethnic groups of India is scarce.

Cancer is a leading cause of disease worldwide. An estimated 12.7 million new cancer cases occurred in 2008. Lung, female breast, colorectal and stomach cancers accounted for 40% of all cases diagnosed worldwide. In men, lung cancer was the most common cancer (16.5% of all new cases in men).

The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) undertook screening of asymptomatic persons from high risk group with the ELISA test for HIV infection in 1986 and found that HIV infection has reached India. ICMR in collaboration with the central and State health services initiated the national sero-surveillance programme for HIV infection in 43 surveillance and five reference centres to determine the major modes of transmission and magnitude of infection.

Epigenetics and lifestyle are conspiring to inflict a massive epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the subcontinent.

The Phase II (2006-2012) of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) has been successful in achieving its objectives. Tuberculosis (TB) disease burden (prevalence and mortality) in India has reduced significantly when compared to 1990 levels, and India is on track to achieve the TB related millennium development goals.

The scale up of DOTS in India is one of the greatest public health accomplishments, and yet undiagnosed and poorly managed TB continues to fuel the epidemic such that India continues to have the highest number of TB cases in the world. Recognizing these challenges, the Government of India has set an ambitious goal of providing universal access to quality diagnosis and treatment for all TB patients in the country. Innovative tools and delivery systems in both the public and private sectors are essential for reaching this goal.

Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is caused by a wide range of viruses and bacteria. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is considered as a main viral aetiology of patients with AES in Assam. In the year 2006, West Nile (WN) virus emerged as another cause of encephalitis in this part of the country. In the year 2008-2010, we investigated 550 patients with AES admitted to nine Government and private hospitals representing 14 districts of Assam. Two hundred and fifty nine patients were identified as positive for JE virus and 56 patients for WN virus.

Even a cure is not preventing deaths from malaria in Uganda. Poor education and limited access to healthcare are among the reasons why.