This brief gives an overview of different country case studies where social protection (SP) systems have been used to address risks arising from climate-related hazards in urban spaces. It also explores how the existing SP systems in Tanzania, Bangladesh and Ethiopia could be modified, given adequate resources, to become shock responsive.

Since May 2020, ODI and its Vietnamese and Tanzanian country partners have been engaged in a 2.5-year project to address the mental health needs of adolescents in schools, in the community and at the institutional level through the co-creation and implementation of digital and non-digital solutions.

Development corridors are focal points for national and international development investment in East Africa, and national governments are directing their limited public sector resources towards corridor development.

Agriculture holds significant potential for growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, production and productivity remain low due to factors such as climate change and variability, and limited access to and low adoption of appropriate technologies.

Access to affordable and reliable energy enables growth of local economies. And demand for energy ensures feasibility of business models for decentralised energy solutions such as mini-grids.

Credit constraint is considered by many as one of the key barriers to adoption of modern agricultural technologies, such as chemical fertilizer, improved seeds, and irrigation technologies, among smallholders.

Agricultural production in East Africa is mainly rain-fed, making it highly sensitive and vulnerable to increased climate variability arising from climate change (EAC 2017a). Climate vulnerability is also exacerbated by reduced produce quality, land degradation, declining soil fertility and imperfect insurance and credit markets.

This report predicts that unless immediate and bold action is taken by the international community to beat back the catastrophic effects of COVID-19 on refugee education, the potential of millions of young refugees living in some of the world’s most vulnerable communities will be further threatened.

In recent years, along with the growing recognition of the rural gender gap in financial access as a key constraint to rural development, research has focused increasingly more towards analysing in depth the financial habits and patterns followed by women in rural areas, in order to produce observations and insights that could foster a more gend

The Republic of Tanzania is an agriculture-based economy. Agriculture contributes 28% of the gross domestic product (GDP), employs 88% of the working population and accounts for between 50% and 66% of exports. Climate change is rapidly emerging as a significant risk affecting agriculture, food and nutrition security in Tanzania.