An outlook of Tanzania’s energy demand, supply and cost by 2030

The UN SDGs highlight the importance of energy indicators in achieving sustainable development. The supply side of energy in Tanzania has received a significant boost and there are optimistic targets to suggest further improvements in this area. However, past experiences have shown that the problems of financial constraints and the lack of technical capacities required could either delay or lead to the total abolishment of some projects. In the short- to medium-term, emphasising demand-side management (DSM) could prove crucial in ensuring a sustainable energy system in Tanzania but the evidence is sparse. This study reviews the trends and underlying drivers of energy demand, supply, and cost in Tanzania. Total primary energy and electricity consumption exhibit a rising trend, and challenges on the supply side suggest energy deficit is a looming challenge in the future.