Zika spread in urban environments is characterized by complicated spatio-temporal patterns, likely linked not only to mosquito density but also to human activity patterns. We conducted a survey on Miami-Dade County residents on time spent outdoors. We then analyzed the Miami-Dade survey data and previously published activity data on the entire U.S. population. Our findings indicate high variability in the amount of time spent outdoors by individual residents.

The Three Gorges Dam (TGD) is a remarkable, far-reaching project in China. This study was conducted to assess the impact of TGD on changes in the ecological environment, snail distribution and schistosomiasis transmission in Dongting Lake area.

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Snakebite is a major problem affecting the rural poor in many of the poorest countries in the tropics. However, the scale of the socio-economic burden has rarely been studied. We undertook a comprehensive assessment of the burden in Sri Lanka.

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The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is an invasive species and important arbovirus vector that was introduced into the U.S. in the 1980's where it continues to expand its range. Winter temperature is an important constraint to its northward expansion, with potential range limits located between the 0° and -5°C mean cold month isotherm. Connecticut is located within this climatic zone and therefore, Ae. albopictus was monitored statewide to assess its northern range expansion and to delineate where populations can stably persist.

Dengue is the most important arthropod-borne viral infection of humans, it is established in the tropics worldwide, and its geographical expansion is expected to increase due to factors such as modern dynamics of climate change, globalization, travel, trade, poverty, unplanned urbanization, and viral evolution. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection, with 50–100 million infections per year.

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Government-administered adulticiding is frequently conducted in response to dengue transmission worldwide. Anecdotal evidence suggests that spraying may create a “false sense of security” for residents. Our objective was to determine if there was an association between residents’ reporting outdoor spatial insecticide spraying as way to prevent dengue transmission and both their reported frequency of dengue prevention practices and household entomological indices in Hermosillo, Mexico.

Zika is, and will continue to be, a disease of the urban poor. Slum-defining characteristics—poor water and sanitation infrastructure, crowding, and poor structural quality of housing—offer ample opportunities for mosquitoes to breed and spread the Zika virus. It was recently estimated that 1.6 million childbearing women and 93 million people will be infected in the Americas’ first epidemic wave. From this reservoir of infections, the world is witnessing the largest epidemic ever of a congenital complication—microcephaly.

Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus which causes an acute febrile illness associated with polyarthralgia. Beginning in August 2013, clinicians from the Yap State Department of Health in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) identified an unusual cluster of illness which was subsequently confirmed to be chikungunya virus disease. Chikungunya virus disease previously had not been recognized in FSM.

Original Source

Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus (JEV) causes severe epidemic encephalitis across Asia, for which the live attenuated vaccine SA14-14-2 is being used increasingly. JEV is a flavivirus, and is closely related to dengue virus (DENV), which is co-endemic in many parts of Asia, with clinically relevant interactions. There is no information on the human T cell response to SA14-14-2, or whether responses to SA14-14-2 cross-react with DENV.

Progress towards the elimination of a neglected tropical disease from a country can sometimes be a curse, especially when policymakers are confronted with competing needs and priorities. This could mistakenly be interpreted as though the disease has been eradicated, resulting in the limited resources becoming redirected to the next priority, sometimes leaving unfinished agendas. Much depends on whether the long term is considered in the elimination agenda and whether contingency plans are in place should the disease re-emerge as a public health problem.