The 2023 annual climate summary: global climate highlights 2023

Global temperatures reached exceptionally high levels in 2023. The Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) monitored several key climate indicators throughout the year, reporting on record-breaking conditions such as the hottest month on record and daily global temperature averages briefly surpassing pre-industrial levels by more than 2°C. Unprecedented global temperatures from June onwards led 2023 to become the warmest year on record – overtaking by a large margin 2016, the previous warmest year. The 2023 Global Climate Highlights report based mainly on the ERA5 reanalysis dataset presents a general summary of 2023's most relevant climate extremes and the main drivers behind them, such as greenhouse gas concentrations, El Niño and other natural variations.