Future extreme sea levels (ESLs) and flood risk along European coasts will be strongly impacted by global warming. Yet, comprehensive projections of ESL that include mean sea level (MSL), tides, waves, and storm surges do not exist. Here, we show changes in all components of ESLs until 2100 in view of climate change. We find that by the end of this century, the 100-year ESL along Europe's coastlines is on average projected to increase by 57 cm for Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP)4.5 and 81 cm for RCP8.5.

In this study, we evaluated 10 months data (September 2009 to June 2010) of atmospheric aerosol particle number size distribution at three atmospheric observation stations along the Baltic Sea coast: Vavihill (upwind, Sweden), Utö (upwind, Finland), and Preila (downwind, Lithuania).

Overfishing of large predatory fish populations has resulted in lasting restructurings of entire marine food webs worldwide, with serious socio-economic consequences. Fortunately, some degraded ecosystems show signs of recovery. A key challenge for ecosystem management is to anticipate the degree to which recovery is possible. By applying a statistical food-web model, using the Baltic Sea as a case study, we show that under current temperature and salinity conditions, complete recovery of this heavily altered ecosystem will be impossible.

Oxygen-deficient waters are expanding globally in response to warming and coastal eutrophication. Coastal ecosystems provide valuable services to humans, but these services are severely reduced with decreasing oxygen conditions. In the Baltic Sea, oxygen-deficient waters have expanded from 5,000 to over 60,000 km2 with large decadal fluctuations over the last century, reducing the potential fish yield and favoring noxious algal blooms.

Fishing limits for wild salmon in the Baltic Sea will be unchanged or cut slightly next year, under European proposals published on Friday, which environmentalists say ignore concerns that some sub

Germany's plan to wean itself off nuclear power has suffered a submarine setback.

There is increasing concern regarding the role of climate change in driving bacterial waterborne infectious diseases. Here we illustrate associations between environmental changes observed in the Baltic area and the recent emergence of Vibrio infections and also forecast future scenarios of the risk of infections in correspondence with predicted warming trends. Using multidecadal long-term sea surface temperature data sets we found that the Baltic Sea is warming at an unprecedented rate.

Geoengineering efforts to bring oxygen into the deep Baltic should be abandoned, says Daniel J. Conley.

Tough new limits on the maximum sulphur content of shipping fuels will come into effect in Europe at the end of the decade, after EU governments agreed on draft legislation on Wednesday.

Legislators in the European Parliament backed plans on Thursday to limit the maximum sulfur content of shipping fuels to 0.1 percent in some cases, meaning ships would need to switch fuels or be fi

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