Oxygen-deficient waters are expanding globally in response to warming and coastal eutrophication. Coastal ecosystems provide valuable services to humans, but these services are severely reduced with decreasing oxygen conditions. In the Baltic Sea, oxygen-deficient waters have expanded from 5,000 to over 60,000 km2 with large decadal fluctuations over the last century, reducing the potential fish yield and favoring noxious algal blooms.