Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) accounts for 90% of diabetes cases worldwide. The majority of T2DM patients are obese. Dysbiosis in the gut microflora is strongly associated with the pathogenesis of obesity and T2DM; however, the microbiome of obese-T2DM individuals in the Pakistani population remains unexplored.
Mangroves cut across ecosystems, sectors, jurisdictions and governance regimes. While few countries have a specific mangrove law, many national and international regimes apply to or affect mangroves in some way.
Pakistan is vulnerable to climate change impacts. Like many developing countries, it is also facing the challenge of dealing with governance of climate change and restructuring associated institutions. It is estimated that the future cost of climate impact would be around $6 billion to $14 billion annually over the next 40 years.
Greening Pakistan’s industry has become an imperative to minimize its adverse impacts on the environment and society, but also to sustain the sector’s growth. Despite substantial growth in recent decades, the