India's climate research agenda: 2030 and beyond

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Assessment Report 6 (AR6), stated that the recent climate change is “widespread, rapid, intensifying and unprecedented in thousands of years.” It is further noted: “Climate change is already affecting every region on Earth in multiple ways. The changes we experience will increase with further warming.” Managing the unavoidable climate change, known as Climate Adaptation, involves a sound understanding of climate processes and modeling, model and process uncertainties, the sectoral needs, and merging into sector-specific climate service tools. Considering the climate urgency in India, from an adaptation perspective, it is crucial to review the existing scientific and technological development in Climate Science and Adaptation and identify the country’s future research direction. The present report identifies the following themes for the detailed review, 1. Monsoon, 2. Climate Modeling, 3. Oceanic Sciences, 4. Aerosols, 5. Extreme events, 6. Urban Climate, 7. Hydrology & Cryosphere, 8. Carbon cycle and 9. Sector-specific Climate Services.