Agricultural innovation scaling approaches tend to be empirical but do not sufficiently take into account the complex realities of ‘softer elements’ such as people, supply chains, markets, financing mechanisms, policies and regulations, professional knowledge, power relations, incentives and history.

Smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) number around 33 million, represent 80% of all farms in the region, and contribute up to 90% of food production in some SSA countries (Wiggins and Keats, 2013). Smallholder farmers face multiple challenges.