Associations of ambient coarse particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide with the risk of kidney disease: a cohort study

Experimental evidence and preliminary clinical evidence suggest that environmental air pollution adversely effects kidney health. Previous work has examined the association between fine particulate matter and risk of kidney disease; however, the association between ambient coarse particulate matter (PM10; ≤10 µm in aerodynamic diameter), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) and risk of incident chronic kidney disease, chronic kidney disease progression, and end-stage renal disease is not clear.

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