Zimbabwe's farmers and miners are fighting each other ever since the government embarked on its land reform programme. Before the reforms, most of Zimbabwe's small-scale mining was carried out on concessionary lands in large farms. Of late, several clashes have been reported as small-scale miners with fresh licences undertake prospecting activities on land allocated to new farmers for resettlement. Consequently, the miners carry out excavations on pastureland or in cropping areas. This has led to environmental harm with gold panners also digging pits on riverbanks.