The role of lithium- based energy storage in India’s climate goals

Energy storage is key to both effective integration of renewable energy systems with the electricity grid, and accelerating the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs). This brief discusses the technological trends in lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries, and assesses the energy storage needs of the Indian power and transportation sectors. It looks at the geographic distribution of lithium and cobalt in onshore and offshore locations across the world; and examines the growth in lithium battery recycling capabilities and the efforts of countries to secure the lithium battery raw material supply chain. The brief estimates that bringing about a green transformation in India’s power and transportation sectors will require 122 kilotons of lithium, heavy investments in battery research, mass manufacturing capabilities, foreign collaborations, recycling facilities for environmental sustainability, and the purchase of lithium assets abroad.