Groundwater supplies 60 per cent of the water for irrigation in India and 85 per cent of rural water supply relies upon groundwater. Accordingly, poverty reduction, rural development and sustainable food production in India rely upon the long-term availability of groundwater in sufficient quantity and quality. Efficient groundwater resource management is therefore of high priority in India.

Groundwater quality data on physico-chemical, bacteriological and heavy metal concentrations in three cities (Faridabad, Allahabad and Varanasi) in Ganga-Yamuna basin was subjected to multivariate analysis using SPSS. The factors extracted showed high loading (>0.3) of various parameters, such Cl, conductivity, TDS, hardness, Na, Mg and SO4 indicating contamination due to leaching of pollutants.

Looking into the problem of NPS (Non-point sources) water pollution generated from agricultural activities, pollution prevention and pollution reduction initiatives, known as management measures are important. Use of the watershed approach is necessary to address water quality problems caused by NPS pollution. The watershed approach looks not only at a water body but also the entire area that drains into it.