Ambient air quality at five busy petrol pumps in Kolkata, India is monitored for mono-aromatic hydrocarbons and carbonyls. Among the measured volatile organic compounds, toluene and formaldehyde were the most abundant. Source apportionment using chemical mass balance identified exhaust from roadway and refueling as the major sources.

Commuters' exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) especially BTEX travelling in passenger cars in Kolkata, India were quantified in Phase I (2001–2002) and Phase II (2003–2004). Monitoring was made inside and in the immediate outside of passenger cars fitted with and without catalytic converters using different types of fuels, along two congested urban routes.