Creation and subsequent expansion of Protected Area (PA) network has often deprived local people of their usufruct rights and displaced communities from their traditional lands. This 'isolationist' approach has resulted in severe conflicts between local people and PA authorities.

On a global scale, the existing Sacred Groves (SGs) follow ancestral worship on conservation in forest patches. SGs are distributed over a wide ecosystem and help in conservation of rare and endemic species. Well preserved SGs are store houses of biological, ecological, medicinal, ethno-cultural and religious values.