We analyze tunnel wells (surangams), traditional water harvesting systems, which have been innovated and nurtured by farmers in the Enmakaje panchayat in the state of Kerala in South India for decades. We show how the genesis and design of the indigenous knowledge-based water harvesting systems are shaped by agro-ecological conditions. We also identify issues that affect the sustainability of tunnel wells in the changing agrarian context in this region.

This article presents a review of methods in 60 empirical studies on forest conservation impact of popular participation in forest management.