Aside of immediate impacts, the 2011 Puyehue–Cordón Caulle volcano (PCC) eruption also caused persisting chemical impacts. By 2012, toxicity resulted in overt dental fluorosis in deer, with bone fluoride increasing > 38-fold to 5175 ppm. Sheep, horses and cattle also succumbed to fluorosis. Due to eolian redeposition of tephra, exposure of ruminants continued, bone fluoride reached 10 396 ppm, and by 2014 skeletal fluorosis was found.

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