Nontransparent contact fingers on the sun-facing side of solar cells represent optically dead regions which reduce the energy conversion per area. We consider two approaches for guiding the incident light around the contacts onto the active area. The first approach uses graded-index metamaterials designed by two-dimensional Schwarz–Christoffel conformal maps, and the second uses freeform surfaces designed by one-dimensional coordinate transformations of a point to an interval.

Increasing our understanding of regional greenhouse gas transport, sources, and sinks requires accurate, precise, continuous measurements of small gas enhancements over long ranges. We demonstrate a coherent dual frequency-comb spectroscopy technique capable of achieving these goals. Spectra are acquired spanning 5990 to 6260  cm−1 (1600–1670 nm) covering ∼700 absorption features from CO2, CH4, H2O, HDO, and CO213, across a 2 km path. The spectra have sub-1-kHz frequency accuracy, no instrument lineshape, and a 0.0033  cm−1 point spacing.