Driven by rapid economic development and growing electricity demand, NOx emissions (E) from the power sector in India have increased dramatically since the mid-1990s. In this study, we present the NOx emissions from Indian public thermal power plants for the period 1996–2010 using a unit-based methodology and compare the emission estimates with the satellite observations of NO2 tropospheric vertical column densities (TVCDs) from four spaceborne instruments: GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, and GOME-2. Results show that NOx emissions from Indian power plants increased by at least 70% during 1996–2010.