Clean up acts

Relief and compensation for life and property from a disaster is provided in Australia under the State Disaster Act, 1980. The State Disaster Relief Fund (SDRF) is responsible for collecting money for material and personal harm and for administering the fund. The SDRF committee can take decisions in awarding claims for compensation. Money left over in the fund may be utilised in future emergencies. The New South Wales Consolidated Acts, 1990, also provide for an Environmental Restoration and Rehabilitation Trust, which is responsible for cost of clean-up and recovery.

In Britain, the concept of civil (collective) liability has proved to be an effective management and policy tool. But compensation to an individual who has been affected by harm to the environment is only given if it can be established that the accused party caused the damage.

In the US, the methods of evaluating environmental damage are derived from the natural resource damage regulations set down by the Department of Interior (DOI) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Liability and compensation are taken care of by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, and the Oil Pollution Act, 1990. These take into consideration, among other things, market prices, travel costs, income, and contingencies.