Two recent discoveries have greatly impacted understanding relevant to the origination and emplacement of petroleum and natural gas deposits. One discovery, pertaining to hydrocarbon formation from methane broadens significantly potential regions where abiotic petroleum and natural
gas deposits might be found. The other, discovery of the physical impossibility of Earth-mantle convection, restricts the range and domain of geodynamic behaviour, and leads to new insights into the formation of petroleum and natural gas deposits. This article highlights the impact and implications of those discoveries, especially as they relate to petroleum and natural gas exploration in India and throughout the world. From the reasoning developed here, the generality of the considerations involved, the understanding developed with respect to the East African Rift System, and the experience garnered from the larger and older Siberian Traps, the prognosis and potential for the region beneath the Deccan Traps of India to eventually become a major source of petroleum and
natural gas seems quite favourable.