Advanced biofuel policies in select EU member states: 2018 update
This update provides details on the latest policy measures that six select European Union member states (Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom) are taking to support the deployment of advanced alternative fuels. Across these countries, currently between 4.8% and 31% of their transportation fuels are derived from biomass. Four of the member states have in place mandates based on energy content, while Sweden and Germany have recently switched to GHG reduction quotas. All countries except Denmark and Sweden have placed a cap on conventional or food-based biofuels for 2020, with caps ranging from 4% to 6.7%. All countries except for Sweden have defined mandates for advanced biofuels by 2020, although the ambition varies widely from 0.05% in Germany to 1% in the Netherlands. The prices for noncompliance range from €9 per gigajoule (GJ) for conventional biofuels in the UK up to €150 per GJ for advanced biofuels in Italy.