This report provides a cursory overview or snap-shot of the institutional and governance challenges that subsist and in many aspects have, arguably, deteriorated in the Department of Water and Sanitation. In summation, the central challenges facing the department relate to human resources (including capacity constraints, high staff turnover and vacancy rates and suspension of senior management); poor financial management (including over-spending, accruals and corruption allegations); considerable policy and institutional uncertainty and incoherence; major challenges to institutions that are critical for water governance (including Water Boards and Catchment Management Agencies); deterioration in WWTW and infrastructure due to lack of maintenance and investment and significant
deficiencies in reporting, compliance monitoring and enforcement. The main sources of information for this report are Parliamentary Questions and Answers, Portfolio Committee meeting reports and information stemming from access to information requests.