Many ecological theories and species conservation programmes rely on accurate estimates of population density. Accurate density estimation, especially for species facing rapid declines, requires the application of rigorous field and analytical methods. However, obtaining accurate density estimates of carnivores can be challenging as carnivores naturally exist at relatively low densities and are often elusive and wide-ranging.

The striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena), despite being a threatened species, frequently occurs in human-dominated landscapes of India's Rajasthan State. The authors estimated hyena densities using photographic capture