Rodent models for urban air pollution show consistent induction of inflammatory responses in major brain regions. However, the initial impact of air pollution particulate material on olfactory gateways has not been reported. The researchers evaluated the olfactory neuroepithelium (OE) and brain regional responses to a nano-sized subfraction of urban traffic ultrafine particulate matter (nPM, < 200 nm) in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro.

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