The Mandakini Valley of Rudraprayag district, Uttarakhand witnessed unprecedented damage to life, property, infrastructure and landscape on 16 and 17 June 2013 due to torrential rains. Run-off discharge data indicate that antecedent rainfall exceeded the limit and the overflow of rivers led to landslide in the region and flash floods in the downstream areas. Fragile geology of the area, close to Main Central Thrust (MCT), degradation processes and torrential rains are responsible for triggering landslides and

Bank filtration (BF) has emerged as an economical and sustainable water pre-treatment technology for drinking water supply. In this method, subsurface water of a water body moves into the well by seepage. BF wells adjacent to a river or lake pump the stored groundwater abstracted from the surface through aquifers. Chemical and biological contaminants such as turbidity, microbes, dissolved chemicals and natural organics are removed by the channel of aquifers present in the area.