Increasing frequency and intensity of earthquakes has renewed the urgency in improving the preparedness and in making the infrastructure earthquake-resistant. Sikkim, a northeastern Indian Himalayan state, was hit by a 6.9 magnitude earthquake of intensity VII on 18 September 2011, which triggered hundreds of boulder falls and landslides, causing extensive damage to public and private infrastructure. An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the various structures present in rural areas was carried out. Assessment of the quantum of damage indicated that though

Mountain springs emanating naturally from unconfined aquifers are the primary source of water for rural households in the
Himalayan region. Due to the impacts of climate change on precipitation patterns such as rise in rainfall intensity, reduction in its temporal spread, and a marked decline in winter rain, coupled with other anthropogenic causes, the problem of dying springs is being increasingly felt across this region. This study was taken up in the Sikkim Himalaya, which has received limited attention