In a study of influences of biotic factors on the productivity of homegardens biotic factors were classified into three classes viz., complementary, supplementary and intervening factors. It is found that structure, composition, management and productivity of home gardens depend upon several interlinking socio-economic-cultural, ecological and policy and institutional factors. Intervening factors are the foremost deciding factor in the homegarden management system and its survival.

Mangroves are unique salt tolerant plant community, found in the coastal regions. As a result of unprecedented human exploitable activities and population pressure, the day of mangroves decreases day to day. Agricultural expansion rather than shrimp farming is the major factor responsible for the destruction of tropical mangrove forests in Asia.