This paper examines the experiences of private sector participation (PSP) in the water supply and sanitation (WSS) sector. The paper first uses nonmarket failures as a concept to briefly explain why public sector provision of WSS is prone to failures. The widely sought solution, PSP, has not shown encouraging results in the WSS sector. In particular, private resources have not been adequately mobilized to solve WSS sector problems as anticipated by the proponents of PSPs. PSPs in